Public Safety
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity

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Source: Vera Institute of Justice

What does this measure?

The number of people incarcerated in local jails by race/ethnicity, expressed as a rate per 10,000 residents of that race/ethnicity.

Why is this important?

Incarceration serves to remove offenders from a community, but also creates hardships on families, including the loss of an income or a caregiver, in addition to long-term effects on mental health for all involved. After incarceration, people often encounter challenges in obtaining meaningful employment, leading to reductions in long-term productivity, recidivism and widespread effects on a community's social, health and educational systems. Disparities in this rate by race or ethnicity can highlight structural differences in how communities are affected and treated by the public safety and criminal justice system.

How is our region performing?

In 2015, our region had incarceration rates of 76 of every 10,000 for black or African Americans, 30 for Hispanic or Latinos, and 14 for whites. The state (excluding NYC) had a rate of 83 for black or African Americans, 19 for Hispanic or Latinos, and 14 for whites. The black or African American rate in our region was 5.5 times of that of whites in comparison to 6 times for the state (excluding NYC) or 4.8 times for the state with NYC. The region's incarceration rates fell from 2000 to 2015 for all races and ethnicity, though the largest decreases were for blacks and African Americans (40%). The state decreases were smaller for blacks and African Americans, and larger for Hispanic or Latinos. Unlike the region, the state saw increases in its white rate during the same period.

Monroe County's rates were lower than the region for black or African Americans and for whites, and similar for Hispanics or Latinos. However, its rate for blacks and African Americans was still 8.1 times that of whites (a larger gap than for the region, state, and surrounding counties). While Monroe County's rates for blacks and African Americans and whites decreased from 2000 to 2015, its rates for Hispanics or Latinos increased by 1%. The surrounding counties had similar rates for Hispanic or Latinos, but their incarceration rates of blacks and African Americans and whites were more than 1.5 times higher than Monroe County. Of the surrounding counties, Genesee and Wayne counties had the largest gap in black or African American and white incarceration rates (18.6 and 18.8 times that of white rates respectively), while Wyoming had the smallest difference in rates.

Notes about the data

Rates are for people in local jails at the county level and in prisons and county jails at the state level. Rates for subgroups at the state level only include the county jail population, not state prisons. National data reported here is missing five states that did not report.

Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2015
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS1.953.918.811.2
NYS (excluding NYC)3.683.219.213.8
Region0.475.530.213.7
Monroe0.568.530.68.5
Surrounding Counties0.0117.129.120.5
Genesee0.081.733.014.2
Livingston0.0157.812.124.5
Ontario0.0197.419.525.2
Orleans0.076.622.415.8
Seneca0.0106.084.027.7
Wayne0.0200.936.710.7
Wyoming0.04.59.026.5
Yates0.0238.183.127.3

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Rates are per 10,000 residents




Number of Incarcerated People by Race/Ethnicity, 2015
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS23511,0664,7638,327
NYS (excluding NYC)1235,9091,6027,619
Region1673158876
Monroe1522123305
Surrounding Counties015135571
Genesee011450
Livingston025299
Ontario0376164
Orleans016338
Seneca017756
Wayne039958
Wyoming01165
Yates05341

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Figures are for the total jail population. The total jail population is the average daily population.




Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS1.873.633.39.9
NYS (excluding NYC)4.4107.031.711.5
Region3.7126.239.716.1
Monroe4.2126.430.313.5
Surrounding Counties0.0124.969.919.5
Genesee0.0252.582.413.6
Livingston0.029.634.615.6
Ontario0.0206.5103.523.1
Orleans0.0113.943.822.4
Seneca0.084.540.522.4
Wayne0.0233.9102.716.4
Wyoming0.08.557.018.5
Yates0.0431.0100.634.1

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Rates are per 10,000 residents




Number of Incarcerated People by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatino or HispanicWhite
NYS15414,4386,5367,724
NYS (excluding NYC)896,3481,5516,770
Region69601261,068
Monroe681574513
Surrounding Counties014553555
Genesee023550
Livingston05465
Ontario02714145
Orleans030656
Seneca06245
Wayne0481494
Wyoming02748
Yates05252

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Figures are for the total jail population. The total jail population is the average daily population.







Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS


INDICATORS - Grouped by Topic REGIONAL VALUE YEAR NYS COMPARISON TREND | REGION
Prenatal Care 80% 2016 3 1
Increasing
Prenatal Care, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Low Birth Weight Babies 7% 2016 3 0
Maintaining
Low Birth Weight Babies, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable
Infant Mortality Rate 6.0 2014-16 2 0
Maintaining
Infant Mortality Rate, Race/Ethnicity, Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable
Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels 0.7% 2015 2 -1
Decreasing
Children in Poverty 21% 2012-16 3 1
Increasing
Children in Poverty, Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families 39% 2012-16 2 1
Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect 18 2016 2 1
Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions 2.1 2017 2 -1
Decreasing
Rate of Teen Pregnancy 2% 2016 3 -1
Decreasing
Arts and Culture Attendance 0 10 Not Applicable
Tourism Spending $1,368 2017 1 1
Increasing
Recreation Spending $76 2017 1 -1
Decreasing
Voter Registration Rate 81% 2017 3 -1
Decreasing
Voter Participation Rate 58% 2016 3 0
Maintaining
Registered Library Borrowers 63% 2016 3 -1
Decreasing
Library Visits 6.0 2016 3 -1
Decreasing
Contributions as a Percentage of Income 1.7% 2016 2 0
Maintaining
Households Without Vehicles 10% 2012-16 3 0
Maintaining
Total Population 0.9% 2017 2 0
Maintaining
Population by Age 0 10 Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Population by Age and Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Disengaged Youth, Ages 16-19 6% 2012-16 3 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income $53,369 2012-16 1 -1
Decreasing
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty 14% 2012-16 3 1
Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Public Assistance Recipients 2.6% 2017 3 0
Maintaining
Approval Rate for Public Assistance Applications 26% 2017 0 -1
Decreasing
Households Receiving SNAP 14% 2012-16 3 1
Increasing
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Tax Filers Receiving Earned Income Tax Credit 16% 2016 3 0
Maintaining
EITC Dollars $177 2016 1 1
Increasing
Change in Total Jobs 0.5% 2017 2 0
Maintaining
Change in Number of Business Establishments by Sector 0 10 Not Applicable
Change in Jobs by Sector 0 10 Not Applicable
Sector Shares of Regional Total Employment 0 10 Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate 5% 2017 2 1
Increasing
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector 0 10 Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 3% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 by Sector 0 10 Not Applicable
Employment-to-Population Ratio 73% 2017 3 -1
Decreasing
Per-Capita Spending for Local Government $3,645 2016 0 1
Increasing
Prekindergarten Participation 44% 2016 2 1
Increasing
School Spending Per Student $22,208 2017 1 1
Increasing
Instructional Spending Per Student $15,778 2017 1 1
Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services 9% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English 43% 2018 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 English by Student Subgroup 0 10 Not Applicable
Grade 3 English by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Grade 3 Math 48% 2018 2 1
Increasing
Grade 3 Math by Student Subgroup 0 10 Not Applicable
Grade 3 Math by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Grade 8 English 41% 2018 2 1
Increasing
Grade 8 English by Student Subgroup 0 10 Not Applicable
Grade 8 English by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Grade 8 Math 47% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Regents Algebra 1 78% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Regents English 84% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate 85% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Cohort Graduation Rate, Beyond Four Years 87% 2017 3 1
Increasing
Four-Year Cohort Graduation Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults 0 10 Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
People Without Health Insurance 5% 2016 3 -1
Decreasing
Supply of Doctors 34.4 2016 1 1
Increasing
Mortality Rate 685 2016 1 -1
Decreasing
Chlamydia Rate 50 2016 3 1
Increasing
Chlamydia Rates within Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable
Gonorrhea Rate 21 2016 2 0
Maintaining
Gonorrhea Rates within Monroe County 0 10 Not Applicable
People Living with HIV 104 2016 0 1
Increasing
People Living with HIV by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
People Living with AIDS 132 2016 0 1
Increasing
People Living with AIDS by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Percent of Days with Good Air Quality 0 10 Not Applicable
Alcohol-related Crashes 3 2017 2 -1
Decreasing
Median Home Value $130,597 2012-16 1 0
Maintaining
Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment by Primary Substance 0 10 Not Applicable
Median Rental Prices $807 2012-16 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners 2.4 2012-16 3 0
Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Homeowners by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Overall Housing Cost Burden 31% 2012-16 3 -1
Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Renters 35% 2012-16 3 1
Increasing
Housing Affordability for Renters by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Homeownership Rate 68% 2012-16 3 -1
Decreasing
Homeownership Rate by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Vacant Housing Units 9% 2012-16 3 1
Increasing
Homeless Persons 0 10 Not Applicable
Serious Crimes 214 2017 1 -1
Decreasing
Violent Crimes 28 2017 3 1
Increasing
Victims of Domestic Violence 54 2017 0 -1
Decreasing
Incarceration Rates 13.7 2017 2 0
Maintaining
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable
Arrest Rates 197.7 2017 3 -1
Decreasing
Arrest Rates, by Race/Ethnicity 0 10 Not Applicable

Worse than NYS by 10% or more
Up to 10% worse than NYS
Equal to or better than NYS





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